Wednesday, December 26, 2007

Cup2Cup: Awoono’s “Early Nineties Loose Pu’er” & Red Blossom’s “Wild Leaf, Sheng Pu-erh 1993”


Since the big price jump in aged pu’er, my attention as a buyer has turned away from 70s and 80s sheng to 90s sheng. Lacking a winning lottery ticket, I find that acquiring aged pu’ers is no longer an option. The adolescent teas from the 90s will mature as I wait for my nascent beeng chas to take on some age. A little more than a month ago, I purchased Awoono’s Early Nineties Loose Pu’er after trying a sample. This is a pleasant tea, a nice change from the stronger, greener young pu’ers. I love young pu’er, but those who know me will also testify that I crave variety. The grand magic of pu’er resides in its changes over years and decades. Good pu’er from the nineties is rare; bad pu’er, common. Awoono’s Early Nineties Loose Pu’er, I decided, is by no means bad. I can afford it, and drinking it is a pleasure.

Davelcorp, a forum poster and discerning tea critic familiar to all of us, kindly sent me just this week a sample of Red Blossom’s Wild Leaf, Sheng Pu-erh 1993. It has some characteristics of age, and the tea does not come with ugly issues attached. I enjoy drinking it. I like it well enough to have ordered some for keeping around the house, and having ordered it, realized that it might be identical to Awoono’s product. Both are mao cha, indistinguishable in dry leaf and liquor color.

The blog "Ancient Tea Horse Road" has an excellent article on Red Blossom’s ’93 Wild Leaf Sheng. The author’s judgment of Red Blossom’s adolescent loose tea is somewhat harsher than my own; given its price and mission, I think it succeeds quite well.

Here is Red Blossom’s description:
Our 1993 Wild Leaf comes from the ancient tea trees that have grown for hundreds of years on the mountainous slopes of China's Yunnan province.

Harvested and crafted by the aboriginal people of Yunnan, the tea is a "sheng" or raw pu-erh -- aged naturally -- with time as the only catalyst transforming the tea from its nascent state as "mao cha" to its current rich mahogany color.

While we are unclear as to the source mountain for this tea, we do know that about seven years after harvest, the tea was acquired by a family friend and brought to Guangzhou to be stored at his tea house until we acquired it in 2006.

This natural aging creates a tea that is uncharacteristically light and sweet. Steeped longer, the tea becomes creamy, with a heavier, yet remarkably smooth body.
Awoono’s description of Early Nineties Loose Pu’er is shorter:
Origin: Menghai, Yunnan, China
Year: Early 90s
Net Weight: 30g
Type: Uncooked

This is one of best loose pu'er, outstanding quality and excellent richness tasting, it displays unique pleasing flavor. Highly recommended for drinking and collection.
My memory of both suggested they are the same, but I decided to put my memory to the test. My tasting notes follow.

Dry Leaf Appearance: Small, broken leaves, some stems. Red-gray. Light frost. The two pu’ers are identical in the dry leaf state.

Wet Leaf Appearance: Brown and black leaves.

Leaf Weight and Brewing Vessels: In two identical 1.5oz porcelain gaiwans, 1.6g of leaf.

Temperature and Steeping: Water just off boiling in early infusions, hard boil in later infusions. One fast rinse. 15s, 10s, 15s, 20s, 25s, 30s, 35s, 1m15s, 1m45s

Aroma: In the first infusions, the Awoono cha is somewhat spicier despite the identical appearance of the dry leaf.

Liquor: The color of Folgers coffee in the first infusions. In the fifth and sixth infusions, I notice that the Red Blossom cha is a shade darker.

Infusions: In this dimension, these two loose pu’ers fall short. They taste good, but they do not evolve as much as one might hope. Although there is some evolution of flavor and aroma in both, it is not pronounced. The Awoono cha changes more than does the Red Blossom cha. And yet I would not expect from these relatively inexpensive, adolescent mao chas the mystical changes I encounter in a great sheng beeng cha from the 70s.

Taste: Because the teas are loose and the leaves relatively small/broken, the two teas quickly infuse even in the first infusion, so the flavors are strong in the first and second steeps. The Awoono cha is spicier and woodier in the first two infusions, but the Awoono has some danker flavors too. I notice this dankness in my nose when I swallow the tea. In the second and third infusions, the Awoono cha is somewhat sweeter and still somewhat dank -- suggesting a wetter storage or even a smallest hint of mold. The Red Blossom cha, while a tad bit more sour, also has a cleaner taste. Perhaps I’ve spent more words on this than the difference warrants. There’s no bold juxtaposition intended. But in the fifth and sixth infusions, the difference grows: the aged characteristics of age and spice are more clearly defined in the Awoono cha. The dankness in the earlier infusions has gone away. Later infusions offer nothing new -- just a gradual diminution of flavor.

Concluding Remarks: I think we would have a rough time locating better adolescent pu’er for less money. Granted, there are better adolescent pu’ers (for example, Hou De’s ’98 Yieh Sheng Ciao Mu), but those cost far, far more. As regards the storage of these teas, neither indicates the effects of a wet past. The spent leaves are certainly not misshapen or partially dissolved like those I’ve encountered in speed-aged pu’er, and the flavors and aromas of these two pu’ers do not have the unpleasant wet-laundry character that I associate with wet-stored pu’er. Given their similarities, these two teas might well have been, at one time, the same tea, and the differences now a result of recent storage. I prefer the Awoono cha a little more, but it is a little more expensive than the Red Blossom cha. If a cha2 you3 were to hand me a cup of one of these a week from now, I’d be hard pressed to identify the source with any degree of certainty. But I’d be happy to drink the tea.

Friday, November 30, 2007

What Makes a Great Tea?, Part II


Next in the Yixing-versus-gaiwan saga, I tried the 1998 Haiwan Sheng Beengcha #7548, apparently one of the last batch of beengs made by Chef Zhou before he started the Haiwan factory. (It comes wrapped in the CNNP paper.) Very tightly compressed, the dry cake smells wonderfully of menthol and mint and eucalyptus -- and a creamy sweet something else. It's doubtless unfair to compare apples and oranges (or Banzhangs and Yi Wus) but I'll do it anyway: there are so many ways that this tea is entirely unlike the 2005 Xi-Zhi Hao, including age and the clear fact of blending. Location, too. Part of the blend here is a harvest from Yi Wu -- which is unmistakable: that dry and spicy-sweet pine forest floor smell. Love it.

This time around I used the 100-ml gaiwan and a Yixing pot that has grown on me -- a 100-ml Tian Qing Ni Xiao Pin purchased from Seb and Jing. The pour is good but not great (I like the liquor to flow a little faster, though some might find this rate just fine). The pot has developed a spectacular patina and feels to the fingertips like good stoneware, so I have been using it more and more for mid-aged sheng puerhs. Size is perfect, too. For each I used 5 grams of leaf.

Wow. What a tea. I love it. A nice blend that has passed its first ten years quite well, it would seem. In the warmed gaiwan I smelled camphor right away. After a moment the aroma had become: raisins! Fermenting fruit, sweet and spicy. The gaiwan's rinse was a greenish-yellowish liquor tending to orange. The green was a surprise, but perhaps a reminder that this is very much a dry-stored tea. After the rinse the gaiwan lid smelled of brassy vegetation (cabbage?) and the cup: burned floor of a pine forest. A good start.

The aroma cup after the second infusion (15 secs) was sweet and salty -- what in lesser teas might be closer to "fishy." The soup almost seemed bubbly and oily, and it coated the mouth and throat -- seeming strangely lighter "on the edges" -- whatever that might be. That Yi Wu "pine" made itself known right away, and everything was balanced. Dry but not overly so -- sweet and spicy and, I wrote: "pure" ...

Third infusion (20 secs) and the liquor turned golden orange; stayed that way throughout. In fact, what the tea achieved at this point it maintained without let-up for at least seven more infusions. The brew truly had a "soup stock" kind of character to it. That's meant to be a compliment. It was "light" but with substance. The aftertaste was sweet and spicy without bitterness, and coated the mouth and throat. (Not so much the lips.)

At one point early on I smelled the gaiwan and it was as though someone had lit up a joint. I kid you not. A strong smell, too, that lingered. That gave way after a minute or two to something I described as "BBQd shellfish." The earlier salty sweet fishiness was mingling in lovely ways with the pine spiciness. What a tea.

I drank until starved; had lunch; then started again with the Yixing pot. In all fairness, I think I need to re-do the Yixing test -- my mouth had been spoiled by homemade turkey soup (excellent, by the way, and happy Thanksgiving!), but the pot experience, if muted just slightly, did come close to what had happened with the gaiwan. The liquor became orange-gold right away, and the nuances were harder to find with the Yixing, but the tea was lovely again. And before giving up on notes and attention with a later brew, I did write "wintergreen." This after many many infusions.

An aside re: timing and subjectivity. After the tasting I searched on the '98 Haiwan to see what, if anything, folks were saying about it. Found this review by Phyll Sheng, whose opinion I value and follow. About a year-and-a-half ago (May, 2006) he didn't think much of the tea. And, according to the follow-up comments, there was consensus. File under: Go figure! Phyll, if you read this, send me your mailing address -- you should try the cake again. :-)

Finally: apologies for the poor quality photographs. Not my thing. I did, however, have two comparison cups of Haiwan brew at 45-second infusion. Orange-red, crystal-clear liquor. Great. Was about to photograph them when my wife came home, saw various cups of tea lying around, gulped down the two comparisons, and walked into another room. On her way out: "Hmm, nice tea. Thanks!" So you'll just have to image the side-by-side. There was, I think, no difference.

Next up: same test, gaiwan versus Yixing, this time with Shui Jin Gui Wuyi yan cha. Over and out.

Tuesday, November 27, 2007

What Makes a Great Tea?


Recently I fell down the rabbit-hole and, under the illusion of acting via my own free will, decided to conduct an experiment: brew the same tea twice, with roughly the same parameters, first using a gaiwan and then a Yixing pot. All the while making careful notes.

The goal: determine once and for all if one brewing vessel is "better" than the other. I know, I know, it's all relative and personal and a contrivance -- but, tea-crazed as I am (you must be, too, if you're reading this) I decided to run the exercise anyway. The subject comes up often enough, doesn't it? If nothing else, it'd be a chance to slow down over a few hours to pay attention to a great tea (I would be tasting a high-quality sheng pu-erh) and also to find the limits of an excellent new pot I found for brewing younger sheng.

And report my findings, should they make a difference.

Like many folks in this realm, I love Yixing pots. Now and then in a quiet moment I like to dip into, among other books, Lim Kean Siew's The Beauty of Chinese Yixing Teapots for a good dose of Yixing porn (to coin a phrase): page upon page of pictures of Lim's own pots which, he says, "range from the lowest to highest grade." Accompanying notes match teas to individual vessels. I've had this intriguing book for many years and it remains a favorite, partly for the gallery of gorgeous images, but also for the brief text in which the estimable Lim (who died recently) holds forth on the idea of "affinity" between a pot and a tea. He argues that there are no hard-and-fast rules regarding clay type and favorable teas, or pot shape and tea, or -- etc. Rather, he says, the affinity between a tea and its pot is something a little more mysterious, magical even: "It is the magic of Yixing clay. So clear is this phenomenon that I am tempted sometimes to say that even though the teapot has no tongue, it can speak for itself and tell you if the tea suits it or not" (ibid., p. 22). The book offers examples of pots speaking for themselves on the subject of tea. If not poetry, certainly poetic.

Lim's book -- which documents his own "experiment" with Yixing -- is in part a celebration of tea and pots, but it is also one fan's response against what passes for conventional wisdom, even rules, in the tea world. What is the standard? he asks. What drives the standard; what determines one way over another? How can you pinpoint quality? And what is the basis of this or that steadfast rule? Not particularly new questions, you'll agree, but ones that seem to come up again and again in this rarified community of ours, where East and West meet to teach and learn and separate myth and fact, substance and hype, over a cup of tea.

[Aside: another great pot book is the massive Chinese Yixing Teawares, a hardbound, stunningly gorgeous catalogue of pots from the collection of Taiwan's MAI Foundation.]

But what about the tea?

An excellent post on THE HALF-DIPPER (a tea blog you should know if you don't already, by an eloquent cat named Hobbes in Oxford) decided the cake for me: 2005 Xi-Zhi Hao Lao Banzhang (spelling differs slightly in various places).

Hobbes's post inspired me to try this particular tea again anyway; it had been a year since I'd brewed it. I wanted something big -- Banzhang! -- that would make itself known, so that within certain fireworks any difference(s) between gaiwan and pot might be clear rather than subtle and nuanced. A fair theory -- on paper, anyway. The Xi-Zhi seemed to fit the bill.

Would've been best to use two vessels of the same size but, making do with what I have, I used my newish 150-ml Yixing pot and a 100-ml gaiwan. Following my standard tasting-test ratio of 5 gr per 100 ml, I adjusted to 7.5 gr of leaves for the pot. I also followed the fairly standard brewing process of 20-15-20-25-30-35-45 seconds (etc.) for infusion time. First (20 seconds) was rinse only.

A year ago I'd paid some attention to the 2005 Xi-Zhi Hao, comparing it to two other impressive Banzhang cakes (notes posted here on CHA DAO) -- but I did not recall what I'd said and chose not to refresh my memory until after tasting the cake again.

(Funny that I'd be moved to experience Banzhangs in the same month, almost exactly one year apart. Hobbes must be right: "Cold November mornings were made for teas like this.")

The dry cake is lovely to behold -- big, flat leaves, loosely packed together -- and it smells truly like a big Banzhang tea: a sharp, dry, perfumed and very familiar green aroma fills the nose (if not the room itself).

I decided to brew in the 100-ml gaiwan first -- this is my standard method for benchmarking teas, anyway. Seemed reasonable to start with the familiar -- draw out what I could based on old habits -- and then compare the brew to what happens in the dance with a Yixing pot.

I recently acquired the pot from Scott at Yunnan Sourcing. I've had a fair amount of difficulty finding a smallish shengpu pot that satisfies with frequent use, but this one is magnificent. (Borrowing, ahem, a page from Lim's book, for me there must be some magic in the pot. Most have either been too big for daily use, or have lacked magic.) This one pours beautifully and I like the simple lines. Clay seemed to be of excellent quality, too (purportedly 1992 Zhuni, though that ultimately doesn't matter to me), and has a ring to it that makes me think it is high fired. For these and other reasons, including magic, I just love the pot. I've used it every day since it arrived in the mail, roughly a month ago. Sheng pu-erh, five years and younger, daily.

So -- everything lined up, time to begin the experiment.

For the aroma in the lid, after a 20-second rinse in the gaiwan, I wrote: "Smoky sweet, but better than ash or cigarettes. Faintly: Chinese medicine. Liquor: crystal clear, tending towards orange." (Last year I wrote: "After sitting for a minute the rinse smells smoky but not of cigarettes." How's that for consistency in a tea?)

Reading the newer words now, just hours later, I can say unequivocally that these are the notes of someone who is looking forward to the imminent pleasures of a great tea. Pot, gaiwan, leaf, water -- it is "all dialed in" as the hip kids say, and -- to mix metaphors -- we're about to reach cruising altitude. (Actually scratch that, I have no idea whatsoever what the hip kids say. And they definitely don't mix metaphors.)

But you get the idea. The aroma in the lid and the rinsed gaiwan said: "Sit back and enjoy the flight."

Problem is, there really wasn't much of a take-off, let alone a reaching of cruising altitude.

The apparently impressive tea -- rich with real Banzhang tree flavors and packed with elusive Qi -- didn't really do much for me this time around, no matter how I brewed it. It was good enough, but hardly amazing. By the fourth and fifth brews there was a little bitterness in the brew that seemed to bring forward a perfumed aftertaste, but after the hints, the teases, there was no big ... arrival ... of anything. Just really subtle hints. The soup was "thick" -- that's all I could come up with in my notes -- but for flavor I once wrote "tasteless." And my note for the 30-second brew was one word: "m-e-l-l-o-w."

I must report that it did seem ever so slightly better with the Yixing pot. There seemed to be a better balance between the sweet and bitter. After the rinse I wrote: "here the smoky aroma has crept away, into the recesses of another, darker aroma -- sweet and bitter -- but what is it?"

For both brewing styles, the "rinse" aromas were lovely, but they made promises that mostly came to nothing. The pot-brewed soup came with an almost immediate aftertaste, something like Muscat on the lips and throat, but it was a tease that didn't fill out or last for very long.

Last year, at the 25 second infusion, I wrote: "Still restrained, but complex. I want more, because the hints are amazing."

Ditto for this year.

Understand, I'm not this obsessed all the time. Well, okay, maybe I am this obsessed all the time, but I definitely don't have the hours every day to pour so much attention into a single tea session. Like many of us (I'm guessing) my daily tea brewing and drinking is some kind of bastardization of the gongfu method: small pot, lots of leafage, multiple & quick infusions. It's that simple. And I choose teas based on whim. Whatever strikes the fancy. In other words, it's not always this precise.

But I had a plan. And, here I found myself, in the middle of an experiment comparing gaiwan to Yixing, in which the real question suddenly became: what exactly makes a great tea great?

With this particular tea, I couldn't see it. Apparently the 2005 Xi-Zhi Hao Lao Banzhang was featured on the cover of Pu-erh Teapot magazine and ranked first in its production year by a group of Asian collectors (?) -- so it comes with pedigree. There is something there for me -- a reminder of greatness; as I said, a tease -- but the tea never really rises to the occasion. (As an aside: if anyone would like to recommend a brewing style for this tea in the comments below, please do. I'll try anything to make it come alive. I will, by the way, be conducting the five-minute stress test, a.k.a. competition-style brewing method, and will post the results.)

Is a good tea a strong tea, flavor-forward -- full of fireworks and fury? No. Some are this way; but not all. It isn't a requirement. Some are quiet and restrained and nuanced. They wake up slowly. But you stick with them because there is a payoff ... somewhere. Somehow. They do eventually wake up. Right?

Someone recently posted an improvised guide to "benchmarking a good tea" on the LJ Pu-erh Community site. One consideration was "lightness" -- a quality described as something like an initial tastelessness that however "comes back from within." Sounds great! And I like the idea of the return, the rhyme, the aftertaste from within -- especially because this benchmark quality seems to contradict another on the same list: "A good tea will have a full body [when consumed] ..."

(Read the comments to that LJ post; additional benchmarks are offered and seem just right.)

This tea seems to have neither lightness nor heaviness. Nothing "oily" even if there is a little thickness to the soup. That's my own personal take on it; let the stoning begin.

Maybe it comes down to this. To adapt a famous aperçu of Tolstoy, all bad teas are bad in the same way, but all great teas, are great for their own reasons.

Well. Whatever Leo might've said, the point applies. A tea can be great for many different reasons. I've drunk some that make themselves known immediately. Others that make themselves known slowly -- taking their time, like a good long story with a worthwhile punch line. Others: it's all about the aftertaste. Yet others: it's about something else. Qi. Or whatever you'd like to call it.

Something in the Xi-Zhi Hao Lao Ban Zhang makes me want to say it is "great" or even "regal" -- but I think that's me giving in to the influence of what I've heard and read about it. Physically, it was "soothing" to drink -- but again, to me, hardly a great tea.

On the opposite side of a benchmarking list for great teas is a list of excuses for why a supposedly good tea doesn't shine. Poor storage. Incorrect water. Wrong pot. Wrong gaiwan. Wrong attitude. Poor attention. Afternoon session, not morning. Morning session, not afternoon. Catching a young sheng pu-erh in the wrong year. Or during a dry season. And on and on. That's all good and well -- but a great tea should make itself known despite the difficulties.

Please don't say it is all "personal taste" because while that is true, I do believe that quality finds company. Or, at least, quality finds an audience. Some teas are -- must be -- better than others. Better leaf, better farming, better process for turning into a tea cake. Better storage. And so forth. Me, I'm still in search of that consensus. And so, next: same test, different tea.

Monday, October 08, 2007

Ten Thousand Titles: The Teacraft Tea Bibliography


[[EDITOR'S NOTE: Many readers of CHA DAO will already know the name and reputation of Nigel Melican, one of the undisputed world authorities in the tea profession. The founder and Managing Director of Teacraft Ltd, Nigel spent more than a quarter-century working with Unilever Research (UK) Ltd, in all aspects of tea production. His modest and generous demeanor belies an encyclopaedic and apparently inexhaustible fount of knowledge in every area of the growing, processing, and marketing of tea. In this post he has favored us with his own personal bibliography on the whole matter of tea. The title of this post was assigned by me. The term 'ten thousand' here is of course used in its Chinese sense of 萬, wan, i.e. 'myriad' or 'innumerable'; in fact there are currently 434 items in this list. Its compilation, over many years' time, represents a whole career's worth of reading, thought, and application -- particularly in the realms of science and agriculture. As such, it should prove a precious trove to serious researchers in those disciplines. There are technical documents in this bibliography as well as very general items. (In order to find the more specialized items, one will probably need access to a science or agronomy library, a sizeable university library, or a very large public library.) As with all such extensive lists, there will be many titles here that will mystify or bewilder certain readers, while others will enchant them. One thing, however, is certain: there is something here to interest just about everyone. My advice is to browse the list in a leisurely fashion and see what strikes your fancy. The range of topics represented here is truly remarkable. Each item is listed alphabetically by author(s), and includes, where possible, the [1] title, [2] author(s), [3] publication information, if that is known (journal information for articles; publisher for books), and [4] ISBN or other cataloguing number. Readers who desire a copy of the bibliography (159kb, in searchable MSExcel format), should contact Nigel directly via email. Happy reading!]]

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Comparison of the flavors of Chinese Keemun black tea and Ceylon black tea
Aisaka, Hiriko; Mitsuku Kosuge and Tei Yamanishi
Agric Biol Chem 1978, 42 (11), 2157-2159

Phytochemical and Morphopalynological Studies of Camellia sinensis
Akhlas, Muhammed
Govt. Post Grad College, Abbottabad, MSc Thesis 1996

The Art of Tea
Mariage Freres, 1989
2 9502851 2 0

Tea: Quips & Quotes
Past Times, 2000
1 85479 838 3

A New Essay Upon Tea - Addressed to the Medical Profession
Empire Tea Mkt Expansion Board, 1936

Tea & Conversation - develop the art of conversation with afternoon tea
Copper Beech Publishing, 2000
1 898617 25 2

Handbook of Mweso Tea Factory (1966) - photocopy
Mweso Tea Factory, 1966
XCW 76 0466

Manufacture of Black Tea - by Enclosed Leaf handling
SVVT, 1950

Start Your Own Coffee & Tea Store
Prentice Hall, 1994
0 13 603275 3

Story of Tea (The)
Brooke Bond, c1970

Tea Growers Handbook
TRI of East Africa, 1969

Tea Growers Handbook 4th edn
TRI of East Africa, 1986

Tea Production in Africa, New Guinea and Australia
Wilson Smithett & Co, 1969

Tea Statistics - 1991
J Thomas and Co, 1991

Tea Statistics - 1993
J Thomas and Co, 1993

Urasenke Tradition of Chado (The) - leaflet
Urasenke Foundation, 1985

Notes on Field Management
TRA - Tocklai, 2002

The Ceylon Tea Story
Ceylon Tea Centre, c 1980

US Tea is "Hot" Report - 2nd edition
Sage Group International, 1996

US Tea is "Hot" Report - 4th edition
Sage Group International, 2001
0 3647115 1 6

US Tea is "Hot" Report - 6th edition (draft copy)
Sage Group International, 2006

Programme The - Rapport Annuel - 1991-92
ISABU, 1992

ITC - Annual Bulletin of Statistics 1989
International Tea Committee, 1990

ITC - Annual Bulletin of Statistics 2000
International Tea Committee, 2001

ITC - Annual Bulletin of Statistics 2004
International Tea Committee, 2005

ITC - World Tea Statistics 1910 -1990
International Tea Committee, 1996
0 902000 08 X

Afternoon Tea Cakes, Tasty Sandwiches and Sweetmeats (in part)
Cable Printing & Publ'g Co, c 1920

The Tea Time Recipe Book
Brown & Polson, c 1900

TRFK - Annual Report 1997
Tea Board of Kenya, 1997

Tea Bulletin (Vol 8, No 1)
TRI of Sri Lanka, 1988

Proceedings of the 23rd UPASI Conference 1978 (photocopy)
UPASI, 1978

Mazawatte Dictionary
Mazawatte Tea Co, c 1914

Chado - leaflet in Japanese

Tea Research Foundation of Kenya - Annual Report 1980
Tea Board of Kenya

Tea Research Foundation of Kenya - Annual Report 1981
Tea Board of Kenya

Tea Research Foundation of Kenya - Annual Report 1982
Tea Board of Kenya

Tea Research Foundation of Kenya - Annual Report 1983
Tea Board of Kenya

Tea Research Foundation of Kenya - Annual Report 1984
Tea Board of Kenya

Tea Research Foundation of Kenya - Annual Report for the Year 1991
Tea Board of Kenya

Tea Research Foundation of Kenya - Annual Report for the Year 1992
Tea Board of Kenya

Tea Research Foundation of Kenya - Annual Report for the Year 1993
Tea Board of Kenya

The Tea Research Foundation of Kenya - Annual Report for the Year 1997
Tea Board of Kenya

The Tea Map of Kenya
Tea Board of Kenya

Proceedings of the 32nd Tocklai Conference (Dec 1994) - Towards Sustainable Productivity and Quality
Tea Research Association

International Conference on Tea Research - Global Perspective. 29 Technical Papers
Tea Research Association - Tocklai Experimental Station 1990

Specification of HDPE Woven Sacks - A New Alternative Packaging Material for Tea
Tea Research Association - Tocklai Experimental Station

Annual Scientific Report 1998-99
Tea Research Association - Tocklai Experimetnal Station

Elimination of Insect Fragments from Tea
Tea Research Associatoin - Tocklai Experimental Station

TRFK - Annual Report 1977/78
Tea Research Foundation (The)

Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa (The) - Annual Report 1978/79
Tea Research Foundation (The)

The Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa - Annual Report 1975/76
Tea Research Foundation (The)

The Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa - Annual Report 1976/77
Tea Research Foundation (The)

TRFK - Annual Report 1979/80
Tea Research Foundatoin (The)

K and Mg Balanced Fertilization in China's Tea Gardens
Tea Research Institute

Tea Science Research Journal 1984-1985
Tea Research Institute

Sri Lanka Journal of Tea Science
Tea Research Institute (The)

Tea Bulletin - Volume 8 Number 1 June 1988
Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka (The)

Tea 1993 - U K Tea Convention 17-20 May - Jersey Channel Islands

An Approach for Studying Groundwater Problems in the Tea Estates
TRA India - Tocklai Experimental Station

Annual Scientific Report 1997-98
TRA India - Tocklai Experimental Station

Iron Particles in Tea
TRA India - Tocklai Experimental Station

Proceedings of International Tea Symposium Rize 1987
General Dir Tea Proc Plants, 1987

Proceedings of '95 International Tea - Quality - Human Health Symposium
TRI - CAAS, 1995

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tea Science
Org Committee of ISTS, 1991

Proceedings of the Int'l Symposium - Teatech 1993 - Tea Science & Human Health
TRA India, 1995

Report of the technologist for the year 1954 - withering
TRI Sri Lanka Ann Report 1954, 33-35

The value chain for tea in Vietnam: prospects for participation of the poor
Anon - ADB Discussion Paper #01
ADB, Nov 2004

Tea & Tea Blending
Anon, Lewis and Co
Eden Fisher and Co, 1894

Peacefulness through One Bowl of Tea
Anon, Tea Ceremony Club
Univ Shizuoka, 1991

Tannin content of foods commonly consumed in India and its influence on ionisable iron
Bagepalli S, Roa Narasinga and Tatineni Prabhavathi
J Sci Food Agric 1982, 33, 89-96

Indian Tea - Its Culture and Manufacture
Bald, Claud
Thacker, Sink & Co, 1940

Two and a Bud - 1984
Banerjee B

A resume on withering experiments at Tocklai from the engineering point of view
Barbora D N
Two and a Bud?, 1965?, 41-52

Tea - legend, life and livelihood of India
Baroowah, GP
Red River, 2006
81 85921 02 4

Science and Practice in Tea Culture
Barua D N
TRA India, 1989

Notes on tea fermentation
Basu R P, and M R Ullah
Two and a Bud, 1978, 25 (1) 7-111

Factors affecting blackness of CTC teas
Basu R P, and S D Ravindranath
Two and a Bud, 1981, 28 (1), 8-9

Tea and Coffee (A Sainsbury Guide)
Baxter, Jacki
J Sainsbury plc, 1987

The Book of Tea
Beilenson, John P
Peter Pauper Press, 1995
0 88088 928 4

Tea: The Paths and Virtues of An Exotic Leaf
Betti, Claudio
Editrice la Mandragora, 2001
88 88108 22 X

Chemical aspects of withering
Bhattia I S
Two and a Bud, 1962, 9 (1), 26-30

Biochemical investigations in relation to tea manufacture
Bhattia I S
TRA Annual Scientific Reports. Year ??, 8-15

Application of chemical tests in manufacturing experiments (theaflavin measurement)
Bhattia I S
Two and a Bud, 1060, 7 (1) 18-24

Plant Clinic - a training system for decision making and resource management in plant disease diagnosis (with HD disk)
Black R, Sweetmore A, and Holt J
NRI, 1995
0 85954 396 X

The Chinese Art of Tea
Blofeld J
George Allen and Unwin, 1985
0 04 394002 1

The biochemistry and technology of tea manufacture
Bokuchava, Mikhail A and Nina I Skobeleva
Critical Reviews of Food Science and Nutrition, Vol 12 July 1980, 303-370, CRC Press

The chemistry and biochemistry of tea and tea manufacture
Bokuchava, Mikhail A and Nina I Skobeleva
Advance in Food Research, vol 17 1969, 215-292

Some aspects of the chemistry of tea. A contribution to the knowledge of the volatile constituents
Bondarovich H A, A S Giammorino, J A Renner, F W Shephard, A J Shingler and M A Gianturco
J. Agric.Food Chem 1967, 15(1) 36-47

Tea (The Tropical Agriculturalist Series)
Bonheure, Denis
Macmillan Education Ltd, 1990
0 333 54450 1

Common problems with the withering trough
Boruah T C
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CTC roller teeth: U vs. V profile
Boruah TC
Two and a Bud, 1979, 36 (1), 45

Novelty Teapots: Five Hundred Years of Art and Design (2 copies, one author inscribed)
Bramah, Edward
Quiller Press, 1992
1 870948 72 6

The Korean Way of Tea - an introductory guide
Brother Anthony of Taize, and Hong Kyeong-Hee
Seoul Selection, 2007

Identification of the thearubigins as polymeric proanthocyanidins
Brown AG, W B Eyton, A Holmes, and W D Ollis
Nature 1969, 221, 742-744

Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and nickel in tea (First page only)
Burke, Keith E, and Albright CH
J Assn Off Analyt Chem 1970, 53

Growing green tea in Western Australia
Burt. John
Centre for New Industries Development, Bull # 4499, 2001

Developing an index of quality for Australian tea (printed copy ex Internet)
Caffin, Nola; Bruce D'Arcy, Lihu Yao, and Gavin Rintoul
RIRDC Publcation #04/033, 2004

The Tea Book
Campbell, Dawn L
Pelican Publishing, 1995
1 56554 074 3

Tea - The Perfect Brew
Campsie, Jane
Murdoch Books, 2001
1 85391 999 3

Improving cashcrops in Africa - WB Tech Paper #216 (printed copy from Internet)
Carr, Stephen J
World Bank, 1993

Golden Tips - A Description of Ceylon and its Great Tea Industry
Cave, Henry W
Sampson Low, Marston & Co, 1901

Herbal Teas, Tisanes and Lotions
Thorsons Publishers, 1981
0 7225 0677 5

Distribution of free amino acids and chlorogenic acids in different parts of 'two leaves and a bud' and its relation to tea quality
Chakraborty S, RAK Srivastava, and MN Dev Choudhury
Two and a Bud, 1978, 25 (1) 17-21

Drainage in Tea
Chakravartee J, Ed
TRA - Tocklai, 1999

Effect of the addition of aluminium salts on the quality of black teas
Chang, Shin S; and Geit V Gudnason
J Agr. Food Chem. 1982, 30 940-9434

A preliminary study of aluminium and the tea bush
Chenery E M
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Elementary notes on tea manufacture Part 1. Withering
Child R
TRI East Africa Pamphlet #18, 1960

Chemical and physical wither in relation to quality of CTC teas
Choudhury R
Two and a Bud?, 1965?, 118-121

A resume of withering experiments & observations from the manufacturing point of view
Choudhury R
Two and a Bud?, 1965?, 53-57

The Artful Teapot
Clark, Garth
Watson-Guptill Publications, 2001

The Cup that Cheers - A History of Tea
Clarke, Ethne
Readers Digest, 1983

Storage deterioration in central African tea: the effect of some production variables on theaflavin degradation
Cloughley , John B
J Sci Food Agric 1981, 32, 1229-1234

Storage deterioration in central African tea: methods of reducing the rate of theaflavin degradation
Cloughley , John B
J Sci Food Agric 1981, 32, 1224-1228

Storage deterioration in central African tea: changes in chemical composition and price evaluation
Cloughley , John B
J Sci Food Agric 1981, 32, 1213-1223

Volatile constituents of some central African black tea clones
Cloughley , John B; Rex T Ellis, Sidney Pendlington and Phillip Humphrey
J. Agric. Food Chem. 1982, 30, 842-845

Factors influencing the caffeine content of black tea. Part 2 - The effect of production variables
Cloughley J B
Food Chem, 1983, 10, 25-34

The effect of fermentation temperature on the quality parameters and price evaluation of central African black teas
Cloughley J B
J Sci Food Agric 1980, 31, 911-919

The gentle art of the factory X-perimenteer (manufacture)
Cloughley J B
TRF QNL 1980, 58, 11-12

The determination of optimum fermentation time in the factory - in-line TF analysis during fermentation
Cloughley J B
TRF QNl 1980, 55, 16-18

Black tea manufacture II. Comparison of the liquoring properties, particle size distribution, and total value of teas produced by different processing systems
Cloughley J B, R T Ellis and N Harris
Ann Appl Biol 1981, 99, 367-374

The effect of pH modification during fermentation on the quality parameters of central African black teas
Cloughley J B; and Rex T Ellis
J Sci Food Agric 1980, 31, 924-934

Storage deterioration in central African black teas: the effect of some production variables on theaflavin degradation
Cloughley John B
J Sci Food Agric 1981, 32, 1229-1234

Biochemistry of tea fermentation: conversion of amino acids to black tea aroma constituents
Co, H; and G W Sanderson
J Food Science, 1970, 35, 160-164

Extraction, purification, and partial characterization of a tea metalloprotein and its role in the formation of black tea aroma constituents
Coggon, Philip, Leo J Romanczyk Jr, and Gary W Sanderson
J. Agric.Food Chem 1977, 25(2) 278-283

Where to Take Tea - a guide to over 50 of the best places
Cohen, Susan
New Holland, 2003
1 84330 215 2

Just Your Cup of Tea - Brooke Bond in Mufindi 1940-1990 - A Celebration
Brooke Bond Estates Group, 1990

The Tropical Agriculturalist - Tea
Coste R
0 333 54450 1

The Garden Beyond
Cran, Marion
Herbert Jenkins Ltd, 1937

That Tea Book - Brooke Bond Choicest Blend
Cress, Patricia Rose
HHL Publishing Group, c 1990

One for the Pot - a small book about tea
Dann, Penny
Hamish Hamilton, 1985
0 241 11691 0

A resume on withering experiments from the biochemistry point of view
Deb S B
Two and a Bud?, 1965?, 35-40

Effect of potassium on nitrogen and carbohydrate contents of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze) and quality of made tea
Dev Choudhury M N and K L Balaj
J Food Sci Technol, 1988, 25 (2) 105-107

A rapid method for determination of total polyphenolic matters in tea (Camellia sinensis L)
Dev Choudhury M N and M R Goswami
Two and a Bud 1983, 30 (1-2) 59-61

Biochemical changes during withering of tea shoots
Dev Choudhury M N, and K L Bajaj
Two and a Bud, 1980, 27 (1) 13-16

Role of chlorophylls, amino acids and sugars in tea
Dev Choudhury M N; and K L Balaj
Two and a Bud, 1980, 27 (1) 16-36

Chemistry of tea flavour
Dev Choudhury MN
Ch 5.2. Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants, 1982, 715-730

The importance of theanine: seasonality and its role in tea quality
Dev Choudhury MN
Two and a Bud, 1984, 31 (1) 37-44

A modified procedure for determination of water soluble carbohydrates in tea leaf
Dev Choudhury MN, and Bajaj KL
Two and a Bud,

Tea Poetry
Dexter, Pearl - compiler
Olde English Tea Co, 2003

Fermentation of tea in aqueous suspension. Influence of tea peroxidase (thearubigin)
Dix, Margaret A, Charles J Fairley, David J Millin and Derwent Swaine
J Sci Food Agric 1981, 32, 920-932

A Study of the Changes Occurring in Black Tea During Storage (G116)
Dougan J, Glossop E J, Howard G E and Jones B D
Tropical Products Institute, 1978
0 85954 083 9

Tea Liquor - a chemical profile
Dudeja V
Contemporary Tea Co, c 1985

British Life in India
ed Vernede RV
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019 564 1868

Eden T
Longman, 1976 (Tropical Agriculture Series)
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Aluminium and the tea plant
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Machine withering in Kenya
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Tea Planting in Ceylon
Elliott E C and Whitehead F J
Times of Ceylon, 1926

Tea - Discovering, Exploring, Enjoying (2 copies)
Ellis, Hattie
Ryland Peters and Small, 2002
1 84172 350 9

Green Gold - The Political Economy of China's Post 1949 Tea Industry
Etherington D M and Forster K
Oxford University Press, 1993
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The chemistry of tea [manufacture]
Eyton W B
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The Geography of Tea
Fernando M
Standard Trading Co, 2001
955 8677 00 0

The Story of Ceylon Tea
Fernando M
Mlesna Ceylon Ltd, 2000
9 558 47900 4

The effect of process parameters on seasonal development of flavour in black tea
Fernando V, and G R Roberts
J Sci Food Agric, 1984, 35 71-76

Tea processing: continuous fermentation in deep layers
Fleetwood JG, M G Hampton, G Johnstone, and D J Millin
World Crops, May 1980, 73-77

La Culture du Theier au Burundi (Publication du Service agricole No 8)
Flemal J
ISABU, 1986

A Hundred Years of Ceylon Tea 1867-1967
Forrest D M
Chatto and Windus, 1967

Effects of light and darkness on polyphenol distribution in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis L)
Forrest G I
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A Journey to the Tea Countries of China (facsimile copy of 1852 edition)
Fortune, Robert
Elibron Classics, 2005
1 4021 8196 5

Tea Environments and Yield in Sri Lanka - Tropical Agriculture Series
Fuchs H J
Margraf Scientific Publishers, 1989
3 8236 1173 9

Application of different forms of calcium to tea soil to prevent aluminium and fluorine accumulation (printed copy ex Internet)
Fung KF, & MH Wong
J Sci Food Agric 84:1469-1477, 2004

Tea - a postbook
Garcher, Fabienne
Cassell & Co,
1 84202 071 4

Seasonal variations in the composition of the volatile constituents of black tea. A numerical approach to the correlation between composition and quality of tea aroma
Gianturco, Maurizio A, Robert E Biggers and Brigitte H Ridling
J Agr. Food Chem. 1974, 22 (5) 758-764

Mineral composition of clonal tea leaf from north east India
Gokhale NG, and Bhattacharyya NG
J Sci Food Agric 19160, 11, 526-528

The Gunpowder Gardens - travels through India and China in search of tea
Goodwin, Jason
Chatto & Windus, 1990
0 7011 3620 0

Tea Mosquito Bug - Advisory Leaflet
Gope B & Das S C

British Tea and Coffee Cups 1745-1940
Goss, Steven
Shire Book, 2002
0 7478 0445 1

Chemical factors influencing seasonal quality of clonal teas
Goswami M R, and B C Barbora
Proc 32nd TRA Tocklai Conference

TRF Malawi Handbook
Grice W J (ed)
TRFCA, 1990

Tea. The drink that changed the world
Griffiths, John
Andre Deutsch, 2007

Distribution of zinc, manganese and magnesium in Turkish teas and their liquors (paper in Turkish - English summary)
Gurses, Lutfi O
Doga Bilim Dergisi, 1984 D2, 8, 2, 133-138

Crude fibre content of Turkish teas and their evaluation from the quality standpoint (paper in Turkish - English summary)
Gurses, Omer Lutfi
Yil 7 Kasim-Aralik 1982 Sayi 6, 271-274

Nitrate content of Turkish teas (paper in Turkish - English summary)
Gurses, Omer Lutfi
Yil 8 Kasim-Aralik 1983, 275-279

Tea Cultivation - Comprehensive Treatise
Hajra, N Ghosh
IBDC, Lucknow, 2001
81 85860 57 2

Near-infrared reflectance prediction of quality, theaflavin content and moisture content of black tea
Hall, Martin N; Alastair Robertson and Christopher N G Scotter
Food Chem 1988, 27, 61-75

Antioxidative action of tea polyphenols (theaflavin)
Hara, Yukihiko
Int Biotech. Lab Dec 1994, 14

The Culture and Marketing of Tea
Harler C R
Oxford University Press, 1933

Tea Manufacture
Harler C R
Oxford University Press, 1963, (Oxford Tropical Handbooks)

Black tea manufacture I. Effects on leaf structure of different processing systems
Harris N, and R T Ellis
Ann Appl Biol 1981, 99, 359-366

The nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, boron, zinc, molybdenum, and aluminium content of tea leaves of increasing age
Hasselo HN
Tea Q 1965, 36 (3) 122-136

Formation of cis-3-hexanal, trans-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexanol in macerated Thea sinensis leaves
Hatanaka, Akikazu; and Takahiro Harada
Phytochem 1973, 12, 2341-2346

Studies on some volatile flavour constituents in orthodox black teas of various clones and flushes in north east India
Hazaraika, Mridul; Pradip K Mahanta and Tadakazu Takeo
J Sci Food Agric 1984, 35, 1201-1207

Studies on thearubigin pigments in black tea manufacturing systems
Hazarika, Mridul: Sukhomoy K Chakravarty and Pradip Mahanta
J Sci Food Agric 1984, 35, 1208-1218

Tea - The Eyelids of Bodhidharma
Hesse, Eelco
Prism Press, 1982
0 907061 06 0

In vitro oxidation of flavanols from tea leaf
Hilton P J
Phytochem, 1972, 11, 1243-1248

Relationship between the flavanol composition of fresh tea shoots and the theaflavin content of manufactured tea
Hilton P J and R Palmer Jones
J Sci Food Agric 1973, 24, 813-818

Effects of season and nitrogen fertilizer upon the flavanol composition and tea making quality of fresh shoots of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) in central Africa
Hilton P J, R Palmer Jones, and RT Ellis
J Sci Food Agric 1973, 24, 819-826

Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography of tea constituents
Hoeffler, Andrew C and Philip Coggon
J. Chromatog, 1976, 129, 460-463

Improvements in tea leaf withering apparatus - PATENT - multilayer trough design
Hopper, Frederick Alston, assigned to Marshall's of Gainsborough
Pub 1969, 4pp, British Patent GB 1,164,454

Off flavor components of green tea during preservation
Horita, Hiroshi
JARQ 21(3) 18=987, 192-197

The volatile constituents of tea
Howard G E
Food Chem 1978, 4, 97-106

Drum withering [extract from unknown book]
Hutton, with comment by Keegle E L
Publ. Sri Lanka

Talking of Tea
Huxley, Gervas
Thames and Hudson, 1956

Organic Tea - A Successful Approach in Low Energy Input Agriculture
IFOAM Conference

Tea Ceremony
Iguchi, Kaisen
Hoikusha, 1982
4 586 54031 1

High boiling compounds of neutral essential oil from tea
Ina, Kazuo; and Hideo Eto
Agric Biol Chem, 1972, 36 (6) 1027-1032

L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in tea leaf
Jain J C, M R Ullah and M N Dev Choudhury
Two and a Bud, 1979, 26 (2) 67-69

Global Advances in Tea Science
Jain N K, ed
Aravali Books Int'l, 1999
81 86880 12 7

Protective Effects of Tea on Human Health
Jain N K, Siddiqi MA, and Weisburger JH - ed
CABI Publishing, 2006
1 84593 112 2

The Story of Mazawatte Tea
James, Diana
Pentland Press, 1996
1 85821 453 X

Release of bound iron and aluminium from soils by the root exudates of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants
Jayman, TC Zaman, and Sivasubramaniam S
J Sci Food Agric 1975, 26, 1895-1898

Tea - The Universal Health Drink
Jhawar R S
UBS Publishers Distributors, 2000
817476024 5

The effect of plant mineral nutrition on yield and quality of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) under field conditions (printed copy ex Internet)
Jie Li
MSc thesis, Kiel, 2005

One Day Course in Tea Manufacture (Monographs on Tea Prod'n in Ceylon - No 5)
Keegel E L
TRI of Sri Lanka, 1983

Tea Manufacture in Ceylon (Monographs on Tea Prod'n in Ceylon - No 4)
Keegel E L
TRI of Sri Lanka, 1983

Withering by heated air
Keegel E L
Two and a Bud, 1962, 9, 26-30

Relation of temperature and humidity to made tea
Keegel E L
Tea Q, 1962, 33, 60-68

Preservation of quality (manufacture)
Keegel E L
Tea Q, 1955, 26, 56-59

A spectrochemical study of the normal ranges of concentration of certain trace metals in biological materials (First page only)
Kehow, Robert A, Jacob Cholak and Robert V Story
J Nutr. 1940, 19

Rotorvane manufacture of China jat leaf and the effects of the floral and iris end plates
Kirtisinghe D; and W C A de Silva
Tea Q, 1970, 41, 121-126

Tea - with friends
Knight, Elizabeth
Storey Books, 1998
1 58017 050 1

Effects of solar withering and turn over treatment during indoor withering on the formation of pouchong tea aroma
Kobayashi, Akio; Keiko Tachiyama, Michiko Kawakami, Tei Yamanishi, I M Juan and W T F Chui
Agric Biol Chem, 1985, 49 (6), 1655-1660

Methyl epijasmonate in the essential oil of tea
Kobayashi, Akio; Miho Kawamura, Yuuko Yamamoto, Kei Shimizu, Kikue Kubota and Tei Yamanishi
Agric Biol Chem. 1988, 52 (7) 2299-2303

Stimulatory effects of aluminium on tea plants grown under low and high phosphorus supply
Konishi, Shigeki; Miyamoto, Sobun and Taki, Takayuki
Soil Sci Plant Nutr, 1985 31 (3) 361-368

TCSA - Yearbook 1989 (Volume 1)
Kotze, Prof JM, ed
Tea Council of Southern Africa, 1989
0 620 14745 8

An Outline of Modern C T C Manufacture (photocopy)
Kydd P G
c 1985

The Way of Tea
Lam Kam Chuen
Gaia Books, 2002
1 85675 143 0

The CTC Machine - In Theory and Practice (photocopy)
Laycock A G P
OCIR The, 1986

The mineral constituents of some Nyasaland tea leaves and tea soils (First page only)
Laycock DH
J Sci Food Agric 1954, 5, 266

A new cheaper method for measuring theaflavin content of made tea using aluminium chloride instead of flavognost
Likoleche-Nkhoma J W and D L Whitehead
TRF QNL 1988, 92, 14-19

Some investigations on rotorvane manufacture
Lushington R A
Tea Q, ??, 72-81

Green Gold - The Empire of Tea
Macfarlane, Alan & Macfarlane , Iris
Ebury Press, 2003
0 09188 309 1

The Tea Clippers - their history and development 1833-1875
MacGregor, David R
Conway Maritime Press, 1972
0 85177 256 0

Flavour components of Assam and Darjeeling teas in relation to agro-practices and processing
Mahanta PK and R Singh
?? 129-136

Flavour volatiles of Assam CTC black teas manufactured from different plucking standards and orthodox teas manufactured from different altitudes of Darjeeling
Mahanta, Pradip K, and Sabitri Baruah
J. Sci. Food Agric. 1988, 45 317-324

Flavour volatiles and lipids in various components of tea shoots Camellia sinensis, (L) O. Kuntze
Mahanta, Pradip K, Mridul Hazarika and Tadakazu Takeo
J. Sci. Food Agric. 1985, 36, 1130-1132

Relationship between process of withering and aroma characteristics of black tea
Mahanta, Pradip Kr, and Sabitri Baruah
J Sci Food Agric, 1989, 46, 461-468

Seasonal variation in theaflavin, thearubigin and caffeine contents of Argentinean black teas
Malec, Laura S, and Mario S Vigo
J Sci Food Agric, 1988, 45, 185-190

A Road Guide to Assam
Discover India Series
81 7053 107 1

A Road Guide to Calcutta
Discover India Series
81 7053 010 5

International Tea Markets 1999-2003
Market Tracking International Ltd
DMG Business Media Ltd, 2001
0 86108 4802

Tea. The drink that changed the world
Martin, Laura C
Tuttle Publishing, 2007
10: 0-8048-3724-4

Coffee and Tea
McCoy, Elin & John Frederick Walker
Private, 1991

The Tea Factor - Smallholder tea production in a Zimbabwean communal area
McDonald B
ICD, c 1995
1 85287 190 3

Tea Technology Associates: Flavoured Tea Production (Draft)
Melican N J

The Little Tea Book
Mellor, Isha
Judy Piatkus Publishers, 1985
0 86188 339 X

Additional volatiles of black tea aroma
Mick, Walter; and Peter Schreier
J. Agric. Food Chem 1984, 32, 924-929

Nonvolatile components of black tea and their contribution to the character of the beverage (theaflavin, mouthfeel, caffeine)
Millin David J, David J Crispen, and Derwent Swaine
J Agr Food Chem 1969, 17 (4) 717-722

Factors affecting the quality of tea
Millin DJ
Ch 3, Quality Control in the Food Industry ,Vol 4 1987, 127-160
0 12 343004 6

Tea Growers Handbook - 4th Ed (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya)
Mithiga J O

The Green Tea Book - China's fountain of youth
Mitscher, Lester A and Victoria Dolby
Avery Publishing Group, 1998
0 89529 807 4

Tea and Health
Modder W W D & Amarakoon A M T
TRI of Sri Lanka, 2002
955 9023 03 9

New Dimension of Tea - Its Projection in the 21st Century
Moitra M C
MC Moitra., 1991

The Cultivation & Manufacture of Tea (facsimile of 1878 edn)
Money, Edward
Elibron Classics
1 4021 8189 2

Enzymic treatment of cocoa, coffee, and tea with polyphenol oxidase
Motoda, Setsushi
Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 1982, 29 (1) 11-16

Tea on Service
Mountevans, Admiral Lord & Lord Woolton
The Tea Centre, 1947

Tea - Addiction, Exploitation and Empire
Moxham, Roy
Constable & Robinson Ltd, 2003

Cay bir Mucizedir (in Turkish = "Miraculous Tea")
Muftuoglu, Prof. Dr. Osman
Altin KitaplarYayinevi, 2006
975 21 0639 0

Tea - Culture Processing and Marketing
Mulky MJ & VS Sharma - ed
Oxford & IBH, India, 2002
81 204 0814 4

Studies on the flavanols in tea. Part IV. Enzymic oxidation of flavanols
Nakagawa, Moneyuki, and Hideichi Torii
Agr Biol Chem, 1965, 29 (4), 278-284

Content of various elements in different parts of the tea plant and in infusions of black tea from southern India
Natesan S, and Ranganathan V
J Sci Food Agric 1990, 51, 125-139

Teas & Tisanes: everyday & unusual teas & tisanes & dishes flavoured with them
Norman, Jill
Dorling Kindersley, 1989
0 86318 324 7

La Cueillette du The - ameliorations possibles en milieu villageois
Ntukamazina R, Lays JF & Flemal J
ISABU, 1992

The Book of Tea
Okakura Kakuzo
Charles E Tuttle Co, 1956
0 8048 0069 3

The Book of Tea
Okakura Kakuzo
Shambhala, 1993
0 87773 918 8

Green Tea - The Delicious Everyday Health Drink
Oppliger, Peter
CW Daniel Co, 1997
0 85207 321 6

Theaflavins in Kenyan teas
Owour, Philip O
mss. YTFK Symp. 24th Oct 1985, 1-31

Can theaflavins alone be adequate parameter in black tea quality estimation? A review
Owuor P O
Tea 1982, 36-40

Comparison of chemical composition and quality changes due to different withering methods in black tea manufacture
Owuor P O, J O Wanyiera, EK Njeru, R M Manavu and B M Bhatt
Trop Sci 1989, 29, 207-213

Changes in fatty acid levels of young shoots of tea (Camellia sinensis L) due to nitrogenous fertilizers
Owuor P O, R M Manavu and J W Muritu
Food Chemistry 1990 38 211-219

Variations of the chemical composition of clonal black tea (Camellia sinensis) due to delayed withering
Owuor Philip O, John E Orchard, Janet M Robinson and Sarah J Taylor
J Sci Food Agric 1990, 52, 55-61

Effects of maceration method on the chemical composition and quality of clonal black teas
Owuor Philip O, and Caleb O Othieno
J Sci Food Agric 1989, 49, 87-94

Changes in the biochemical constituents of green leaf and black tea to withering: a review
Owuor Philip O, and John E Orchard
Tea 1989, 10 (1), 53-59

Comparison of the chemical compositions of black teas from main black tea producing parts of the world
Owuor Philip O, Hiroshi Hirita, Tojiro Tsushida and Toshinobu Murai
Tea 7(2) 1986 71-78

Effects of geographical area of production on the composition of the volatile flavour compounds in Kenyan clonal black CTC teas
Owuor Philip O, Hirosho Horita, Tojiro Tsushida and Toshinobu Murai
Expl. Agric 1988, 24, 227-235

Effects of withering on some quality parameters of black tea: preliminary results
Owuor Philip O, Mutwiri J S Mutea and A Martin Obanda
Tea 1986, 7 (2) 13-17

Differentiation of clonal teas by terpene index
Owuor Philip O, Tadakazu Takeo, Hirosho Horita, Tojiro Tsushida and Toshinobu Murai
J. Sci. Food Agric. 1987, 40 341-345

Changes of astringency of black tea due to the variations in individual theaflavins
Owuor, P Okinda, and Martin Obanda
Proc. Shanghai ITS , Nov 1995, 201-205

Flavour of black tea - a review
Owuor, Philip O
Tea 1986, 7 (1) 29-42

The evaluation of photometric methods and organoleptic assessment for optimising fermentation during black tea manufacture
Owuor, Philip O
Tea 1987 8 (1) 21-26

Comparative methods of optimising fermentation time in black tea processing. 1: Preliminary results
Owuor, Philip O
Tea 1984, 5 (1) 34-38

Effects of added aluminium on the theaflavin contents of black tea
Owuor, Philip O, and Francis O Gone
Tea 1988, 9 (2), 81-84

Optimising fermentation time in black tea manufacture
Owuor, Philip O, and Stuart G Reeves
Food Chem, 1986, 21, 195-203

The economic impact of theaflavin in Kenyan teas - a review
Owuor, Philip O, Caleb O Othieno and Stuart G Reeves
Tea 1986, 7 (2) 88-93

Effects of artificial withering on the chemical composition and quality of black tea
Owuor, Philip O, Tojiro Tsushida, Hiroshi Horita and Toshinobu Murai
Trop Sci 1987, 27, 159-166

Effects of Drier type and grade on chemical quality components of black tea
Owuor, Philip O; A Martin Obanda and Joseph O Wanyiera
Tea 1987 8 (2) 73-81

The effects of degree of physical wither on the chemical composition of black tea
Owuor, Philip O; and John E Orchard
Tea 1989, 10 (1), 47-52

Correlation of theaflavins content and valuations of Kenyan teas
Owuor, Philip O; Stuart G Reeves and John K Wanyoko
J Sci Food Agric 1986, 37, 507-513

Assessment of constraints in technology transfer system and policies which limit the realisation of high green leaf production in the smallholder tea sector of the Kenya tea industry: an empirical analysis of economic efficiency and supply of tea - Part 2. (printed copy from Internet)
Owuor, Philip Okinda
ATPS Research Paper #3, 2005
9966 916 82 2

Separation of the components in black tea infusion by chromatography on Toyopearl
Ozawa, Tetsuo
Agric Biol.Chem, 1982 46 (4) 1079-1081

National Tea Research Station
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council

Properties of tea polyphenol-oxidase
Perera K P W, and R L Wickramasinghe
? Tea Q. 1972 ? 153-163

The Etiquette of an English Tea
Peters, Beryl
Copper Beech Publishing, 1995
1 898617 06 6

A Social History of Tea
Pettigrew, Jane
The National Trust, 2001
0 7078 0289 X

Design for Tea
Pettigrew, Jane
Sutton Publishing, 2003
0 7509 3283 X

Tea Time - a complete collection of traditional recipes
Pettigrew, Jane
Dorling Kindersley, 1986
0 86318 297 6

The Tealover's Companion
Pettigrew, Jane & Richardson, Bruce
The National Trust, 2005
0 7078 0390 X

Tea in the City: London
Pettigrew, Jane and Bruce Richardson
Benjamin Press, 2006
0 9663478 8 9

Tea in the City: Paris
Pettigrew, Jane and Bruce Richardson
Benjamin Press, 2007
0 978 0 9793431 0 0

Tea Dictionary - preliminary edition
Pratt, J Norwood
Tea Society, 2005

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Pratt, J Norwood
101 Productions, 1982
0 89286 191 6 795

Great Enterprise - A History of Harrisons & Crosfield
Pugh, Peter et al, Guy Nickalls ed
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0 95161160 7

Varietal variation and correlation of trace metal levels with catechins and caffeine in Sri Lanka tea
Ramakrishna, Rasiah S, and Senerath Palmakumbura
J Sci Food Agric 1987, 38, 331-339

Copper in Ceylon teas
Ramaswamy M S
Tea Q. 1960, 76-80

Factors responsible for blackness of CTC teas
Ramaswanmy S, and S N Stephen Thanaraj
Bull. United Planters Assoc. of S India, 1981, 37, 45-65

Assam Planter (2 copies)
Ramsden A R
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Tea - Postbooks
Ramsey M
1 84202 071 4

Feasibility of Tea Cultivation in Mansehra and Central Swat Areas (Survey Report)
Rashid A, Nizami MMI and Akhtar MS

Whither withering?
Reeves S G
TRFK Symposium, Oct 24th 1985

Polyphenol oxidase and model systems and their use in the study of tea manufacture - a review
Reeves S G
Tea 1983, 4 (2) 36-40

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Trop Sci 1987, 27, 121-133

Theaflavin analysis of black tea - problems and prospects
Reeves Stuart G , Francis Gone and Philip O Owuor
Food Chem 1985, 18, 199-210

The effect of infusion temperature on measured theaflavins levels - a preliminary note
Reeves, Stuart G, and Francis Gone
Tea 1984, 5 (1) 28-33

Notes on tea manufacture - history speaks (withering)
Reid, Charles (letter of 1931)
Two and a Bud, 1980, 27 (1) 34-35

The Story of Typhoo
Renmus S J
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Flavor chemistry - coffee, cocoa, and tea
Reymond, Dominique
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Stone's Pocket Guide to Tea Caddies
Riley, Noel
June & Tony Stone, 2002
0 9542741 0 5

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Roberts E A H and R F Smith
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Roberts E A H
J Sci Food Agric, 1958, 9, 381-390

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Roberts E A H
J Sci Food Agric, 1958, 9, 212-223

The phenolic substances of manufactured tea III. Ultra violet and visible absorption spectra
Roberts E A H, and (Miss) D M Williams
J Sci Food Agric 1958, 9, 217-223

The phenolic substances of manufactured tea IV. Enzymic oxidations of individual substances
Roberts E A H, and (Mrs) M Myers
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The phenolic substances of manufactured tea V. Hydrolysis of gallic acid esters by Aspergillus niger
Roberts E A H, and (Mrs) M Myers
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The phenolic substances of manufactured tea VII. The preparation of individual flavanols
Roberts E A H, and (Mrs) M Myers
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The phenolic substances of manufactured tea VIII. Enzymic oxidations of polyphenolic mixtures
Roberts E A H, and (Mrs) M Myers
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The phenolic substances of manufactured tea I. Fractionation and paper chromatography of water soluble substances
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J Sci Food Agric 1957, 8, 72-80

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A simplified method for the rapid determination of the degree of fermentation during tea manufacture
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Effects of physical and chemical conditions on the in vitro oxidation of tea leaf catechins
Robertson, Alistair
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Effects of catechin concentration on the formation of black tea polyphenols during in vitro oxidation
Robertson, Alistair
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Saijo, Ryoyasu
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The production of phenylacetaldehyde from L-phenylalanine in tea fermentation
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The theory of withering in tea manufacture
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Irrigation in Tea
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Tea Q. 1972 (1 & 2) 4-13

Aroma forming substances in black tea
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Tea - essence of the leaf
Slavin, Sara and Karl Petzke
Chronicle Books, 1981
0 8118 1632 X

Chado - The Japanese Way of Tea
Soshitsu Sen
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Tea Life - Tea Mind
Soshitsu Sen XV
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Improvements in or relating to tea - PATENT (adding Al salts to improve liquor colour)
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The World Tea Market - Supply, Demand and Outlook
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Spiller G A
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Tea and the rate of its infusion
Spiro, Michael
Chemistry in New Zealand 1981, Dec, 172-174

The flavagnost complexation method for analysing theaflavins
Spiro, Michael; and William E Price
proof mss. circa 1974

Chemical changes occurring during the storage of black tea
Stagg, Geoffrey V
J Sci Food Agric, 1974, 25, 1015-1034

The nutritional and therapeutic value of tea - a review
Stagg, Geoffrey V and Millin, David J
J Sci Food Agric 1975, 26, 1439-1459

Tea leaf polyphenol oxidase Part I Solubilization and properties of the structurally bound polyphenol oxidase in tea leaves
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Agr Biol Chem 1965, 29 (6) 558-563

Tea leaf polyphenol oxidase Part III Studies on the changes of polyphenol oxidase activity during black tea manufacture
Takeo, Tadakazu
Agr Biol Chem 1966, 30 (6) 529-535

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Takeo, Tadakazu
JARQ 1974, 8 (20 159-164

Formation and degradation of tea aroma during tea fermentation and tea drink processing
Takeo, Tadakazu

Characteristics of the aroma constitution found in native China black teas
Takeo, Tadakazu
Agric Biol Chem. 1983, 47 (7) 1377-1379

Variation in amounts of linalool and geraniol produced in tea shoots by mechanical injury
Takeo, Tadakazu
Phytochemistry 1981, 20 (9), 2149-2151

Effect of the withering process on volatile compound formation during black tea manufacture
Takeo, Tadakazu
J Sci Food Agric, 1984, 35, 84-87

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Takeo, Tadakazu and Pradip Kumar Mahanta
J Sci Food Agric 1983, 34, 307-310

Why CTC tea is less fragrant
Takeo, Tadakazu, and Pradip K Mahanta
Two and a Bud, 1983, 30 (1 & 2), 76-77

Reddish orange pigments of black tea structures and oxidative formation from catechins (theaflavin)
Takino, Yoshinori
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Flavour production by some of the clones in Darjeeling
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The Tea Ceremony
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Kodansha International Ltd, Japan, 2000
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Equipment for the continuous rolling of tea leaf - PATENT
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Tenison, Marika Hanbury
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On the methods of orthodox manufacture and its effect on grade outturns and made tea characteristics. 1 - The influence of withers and the rolling process on dhool and grade outturns and made tea characteristics
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Tea Quarterly, 1974, 44 (2 & 3), 122-127

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Tea Quarterly, 1976, 46 (1 & 2), 26-36

Margaret Thornby's Guide to Tea Rooms of Britain
Thornby, Margaret
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Studies on the scientific methods for the measurement of tea quality. Part II. Studies on the relation between quality and the contents of catechins and pigments in tea infusion by thin layer chromatography
Ting, I-Ni
J Chinese Agric Chem Soc 1981, 19 (3-40, 181-189

The Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa - Quarterly Newsletter 1987

Withering - its effect during manufacture and on made tea
Trinick J M
Two and a Bud, 1962, IX (11), 31-34

Recent Development in Tea Production (Special Publication No 2)
Tsai Fua Chiu and Chie Huang Wang
Taiwan TES, 1988

Biochemical studies on the senescence of plucked tea leaves
Tsushida, Tojiro
??, 1986, 289-292

Ethylamine content of fresh tea shoots and made tea determined by high performance liquid chromatography
Tsushida, Tojiro; and Tadakazu Takeo
J Sci Food Agric, 1984, 35, 77-83

Twinings - Two Hundred and Fifty Years of Tea and Coffee 1706 - 1956
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Way of Tea (The) - All About Tea (Internet printout)
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All About Tea, Volume 2 (facsimile reprint of 1935 edn)
Ukers, William H
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A rapid procedure for estimating theaflavins and thearubigins of black tea
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Ullah M R
Two and a Bud, 1984, 31 (1), 20-24

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Ullah M R
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Tocklai Expl Station Advisory Leaflet 12, May 1979

United Planters' Association of Southern India - Annual Report 1987
United Planters' Association

Peacefulness through One Bowl of Tea
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The Tea Crop in the USSR (in Russian)
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Tea - Blending as a Fine Art
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Fiziologiya Rasteii, 1986, 33 (2) 356-364

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Chi J Tea Science, 1990, 10 (1) 59-64

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

Tea Moons, Circle Poems, and Mesostics


[[EDITOR'S NOTE: Not long ago the US Mail brought me one of the more extraordinary packets I have been privileged to receive. It contained an envelope of creamy ivory stock, adorned with a postage-stamp from the Republic of China that shows Yixing teapots being filled with tea. The envelope was stamped in red capital letters, 'DO NOT BLEND' [sic]. It was stamped, moreover, on the back with tiny poems in continuous-circle format. Inside were a number of small cards, made from heavy card-stock paper, each painted -- in tea -- with a full moon, and inscribed with a tea-related mesostic poem. I could not have been more delighted. I asked the poet if he might favor the readers of CHA DAO with a sampling of this beautiful and inventive art-form, so germane to our discussions and yet so fresh and unforeseen, and here -- just in time for the full Harvest Moon -- he has done so, with a lucid and stimulating explanation of what it is all about.

ADRIAN LURSSEN, a distinguished poet who has been published in such eminent venues as AGNI, holds the MFA in Fiction from George Mason University. Born and raised in South Africa, he brings an unusually global perspective to his writing -- and a lively and perceptive mind to his tea-drinking, as readers of CHA DAO will already know. He is the Founding Editor of a splendid literary journal, PRACTICE: NEW WRITING + ART, which deftly juggles the arts, verbal and visual, in innovative ways for the new millennium. It is a pleasure to share his work with you here. (To enlarge the images, click on them with your computer mouse.)]]

I recently learned via Lew Perin's Babelcarp translator (of Chinese tea terms into English) that the word YUN, used to describe a tea's aftertaste, translates literally as RHYME.

This is an exquisite fact; yet another example among many of how poetry and Chinese tea are inextricably linked. A tea doesn't have an aftertaste - it has a rhyme! The rhyme is soft or strong. Like some word rhymes, it can be felt at the back of the throat. Or on the lips. Or the tongue.

I could go on, but actually have been asked to describe tea moons, mesostics, and circle poems. And yet here I begin, without rhyme or reason.

Tea moons are moons that have been painted using tea. That's one simple definition. Lately I have been doing exactly this because 1) I think the results are beautiful, and 2) it serves as a personal record of teas I might never drink again. (This season's Baozhong. Or, a 1960s Zhong Cha. Or, an aged Shui Xian in limited supply.)

Whenever I brew a "notable" tea, I always place a few extra leaves in a tiny gaiwan sitting to the side and add a splash of hot rinse water from my main pot or gaiwan. Later in the day I'll return to the steep in that little gaiwan and, using a small watercolor brush, I'll paint moons on 3 by 5 inch cards (made by Italian paper company Fabriano and called Medievalis 208 S.) I have a large and growing collection.

I like moons made of tea. They remind me of farmers watching the spring sky for the correct moment to harvest leaves.

Generally, the moon also reminds us of the passage of time. And naturally, in ways too numerous to mention, time has everything to do with tea. The shape - a circle - also brings to mind the lip of a cup, the mouth of a pot, an unbroken bingcha.

The idea of tea moons came from Scottish artist, poet, publisher Alec (Eck) Finlay - who was the subject of a recent interview published in my literary magazine, PRACTICE: NEW WRITING + ART.

My friend Susan Tichy - the mag's poetry editor - conducted the interview. After the issue came out, Susan traveled to Scotland and met Eck Finlay in person. She presented him with a gaiwan and some Wuyi yancha (all PRACTICE contributors get tea from us). In return, Finlay sent me a tea moon. His was created in a slightly different way: he'd spilled tea (our Wuyi) onto a sheet of paper, placed a cup in the spill, and left it to dry. The spill and the cup turned into the faintest hint of a moon. It was lovely.

Seeing that first moon was like being struck by lightning. I understood it as a way to capture the remarkable experience of tea, which is weighted by time but actually in practice quite fleeting. (It is the same inclination, to me, that leads a person to make tasting notes. Some teas wait decades to be drunk; the experience, when it finally arrives, takes a mere afternoon. How to make it last?)

And so, tea moons - created in two different ways. There are bound to be so many more.

Lately I have been experimenting with Finlay's original method, which relies on chance more than mine does. I like it very much and have been doing more in that style. I think both methods have their place in an expression of tea art (whatever that happens to be) - one might be seen as an act of will, the other an act of chance.

The painted moons are contrived to capture the specific colors of a brewed tea in the shape of a moon - as I said, a personal record of a tea life over time. The spilled moons do this, too, but they're magical for the way chance is involved: a cup is placed in spilled tea and as a result, a moon like no other is formed.

No need to compare, both have their place, but I mention them side by side here for this way they seem to represent two sides of the tea experience. Water temperature, pot size, leaf amount, harvest day, steep time, storage duration, leaf quality, blend recipe - all of these represent something we can control, the act of human will imposed upon tea. Like painting a perfect moon with a brush.

And then there is the part played by the unexpected, the random. The unpredictability of a winter season. Or, the unpredictable growth of a tea bush in any given year. The strength of the sun the day the leaves are picked. The vagaries of storage. Your mood when you brew a pot. (To name just a few obvious ones.) A chance spillage. A cup set within the spill. The moon that appears in turn. Aspects of chance, the art arising from it.


This all started not with moons but with circle poems.

In the PRACTICE interview, Susan and Eck Finlay discuss his worldwideletterbox project, which - in short - involves placing circle poems in letterboxes at 100 locations around the world. (Read the interview here; it is a truly amazing project and deserves a better explanation than mine. For the sake of space and time, I'll focus only on circle poems.)

Circle poems have no beginning, middle, or end. They start where you jump in, they end where you jump out. Their meaning often changes, depending on where you choose to start. And, surprise, they are perfectly suited to the subject of tea. Last spring, while working on the magazine, I started writing tea circle poems - and oh boy has it been fun. My first was to do with aged sheng pu-erh ("in time a cup for now a leaf") - which must be read in a circle.

Circle poems by their nature seem to mirror the circular process of tea, which is probably more spiral than circle: plant to leaf to pot to cup to lips to pot to cup to lips to pot to cup to lips, etc. And, like moons, in shape they resemble cups, pots, and tea cakes. And the circle itself ... again, like time.

My favorites so far have to do with Da Hong Pao ("a tea between rocks a mist between pours") and Yixing ("a pot seasons a tea seasons") - both of which also must be read in circle form.

The poems are made into rubber stamps and then pressed in ink onto the back of the tea moon cards. All part of the fun.


Along the way, Eck Finlay - who seems to live for collaboration they way I live for tea - urged me to start writing tea mesostics.

The mesostic form was invented (and used extensively) by American artist/composer John Cage. It involves writing a poem of only one word per line that forms, in vertical intersection, a word that relates to the theme or subject of the poem. Whew. (It's like an acrostic, in which the first letter of each line spells something, but in this case the word appears within - not at the beginning.)

For example, a mesostic about aged uncooked pu-erh:
Or this one, to do with Wuyi yancha:

What I love about mesostics - which, like circle poems, are harder than they seem - is that the backbone word, the vertical intersection, can be read as an ending to the short poem. (Ex: Among rocks, leaves borrowing ambient strength: Oolong.) And as Finlay pointed out, the trick is to create mesostics that are more than mere lists. Although I like this list-type meso, to do again with yancha:

Another thing about mesos that I like so much: their grid-like nature and the vertical/horizontal text remind me of neifei. Or, of Chinese text grids in general. For this reason, and for all the other obvious resonance(s), I've been including related mesostics on the tea moon cards I've been painting.

Here's another, relying on "instruction" - which seems to me a frequent motif in tea art:

I've also been sending the cards out as gifts - collected in a series of seven. Each card can be read by itself, or as part of a larger whole: one poem about tea in seven stanzas, seven mesostics. And the recipient, the reader, can re-order the cards for each reading. Like tea, it's all part of that dance between chance and will.

All of which to say: you should try your hand at a circle poem or mesostic. Like tea, it is oh so addictive. And fun!

(by the way, I have been drinking a 1996 Menghai #7542, well stored for a decade in Hong Kong, while writing this. I can't yet put into words what the brew tastes like, but I can tell you that it rhymes on the roof of the mouth.)